# Course Schedule

PHAR 121 Mathematics for Pharmacy I         (1 Credit)
This course will establish the relevance of mathematics in pharmacy.  Application of mathematical concepts in pharmaceutical systems and phenomena will be made clear.

Differentiation

Limits, definition, product, quotient, function of a function, implicit differentiation, stationary points, turning points, points of inflection and function sketching.

Logarithmic Plots

Exponential and logarithmic functions, semi-logarithmic and logarithmic plots.

Integration Methods

By parts, algebraic substitution and partial fractions.

First-order Rate Processes

Definition, different physical processes obeying the Law (e.g. radioactive decay, chemical reaction, microbial growth, and elementary pharmacokinetics), half-life and semi-logarithmic plots.

PHAR 122 Mathematics for Pharmacy II (Prerequisite PHAS 121)             (1 Credit)
Zero, second and third-order reaction:  The rate equations, their solutions and half-life.

Triangular Charts

Graphical representation of three component systems.

Partial Differentiation

Functions of several variables, first and second partial derivatives, geometric interpretation.

Integration

Definite integrals, area under the curve, infinite limits, approximate integration methods (trapezoidal rule).

Differential equations

Solution of ordinary differential equations by separation of variables and integrating factor methods.  Partial differential equations, the unsteady state diffusion equations.  Fick’s Law of Diffusion.

PHAR 123 Introduction to Principles of Pharmacy    (3 Credits)
This course will explain the fundamental principles of pharmacy as the procurement, storage and delivery of medicines in accordance with the ethics and laws of pharmacy practice.  The course will provide students with the knowledge of the theory and practice of pharmacy by the following processes:  Formulation, compounding and extemporaneous preparation of various dosage forms of medicines.  Dispensing and counseling in a comprehensive pharmaceutical care delivery system.

PHAR 124  Pharmaceutical Microbiology I                        (3 Credits)
This course will introduce students to the fundamentals of the biology of micro-organisms and their significance in pharmacy.
Bacteriology

history; classification and nomenclature; structure and function; culture media; growth requirements, dynamics of growth; mode of reproduction; simple identification procedures.  Gram staining and important biochemical diagnostic methods.

Virology

Structure of virus, bacteriophage cultivation techniques.  Assay:  Mode of replication of animal virus and bacteriophage; in virulent or avirulent form.
Phenomenon of lysogeny in bacteria and latency in human cells.  Transduction and recombination interference.  Comparative study of virus with other submicroscopic infective agents; oncogenic viruses and tumours.

Mycology

Basic principles in mycology:  Yeasts and moulds.  Morphological characteristics, growth requirements, multiplication and reproduction; isolation, cultivation (culture media) and microscopic examination; economic importance.
Parasitology: Morphology, life cycles and classifications of human and animal parasites.  Parasite infections of humans e.g. nematodes, trematodes, cetodes and protozoa.

PHAR 125 Principles of Pharmacy Practical   (1 Credit)
Introduction to dispensing prescriptions – labeling, sources of information, pharmaceutical compounding, posology and dosage calculations, pharmaceutical calculations, measurements and weighings.  Pharmaceutical dosage forms; Routes of administration, Basic incompatibilities in dispensing; colouring  and flavouring agents, pharmaceutical solvents, diluents, antioxidants and buffers, common waxes, oils and fats.  Precision and accuracy in dispensing.  Various calculations used in dispensing.  Preparation of percentage solutions, aromatic solutions, mixtures, emulsions, suspensions, syrups, lotions creams and suppositories.

PHAR 126 Pharmaceutical Microbiology I Practical  (1 Credit)
This course seeks to provide students with practical skills in microbiology through the following sources of micro-organisms: soil, atmosphere, water bodies, humans and pharmaceutical containers, etc.  Microscopic examination of prepared slides – fungi, bacteria etc.  Staining techniques: simple, differential (Gram) stain, spore and motility.  Culture media; Liquid/Solid; aerobic/anaerobic media; routine and diagnostic media (include McIintosh Fields’ Jar, Anaerobic Jar).  Isolation of micro-organisms: Serial dilution, pour plate, streaking, spreading etc. Bacteria and Fungal enumeration: Total count turbidometrics microscopic count, viable count, pour plate, roll tube, over dried (Miles and Misra) agar plate techniques.  Statistical evaluation of counting techniques.

PHAR 221 Pharmaceutical Microbiology II                   (2 Credits)
In this course students will be made aware of the significance and implications of microbial contamination of pharmaceutical products and the need for disinfection and sterilization.  The course will provide for an understanding of the physicochemical methods for controlling microbial contamination of pharmaceutical products and for total elimination of microbial contaminants from products and creation and maintenance of sterile work environment.

Methods of Sterilization

Dry heat; moist heat (autoclave-various types); Heating with a bactericide (HWAB); Filtration (various types); High efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA filters); Testing of filters.  Gaseous sterilization, ethylene oxide sterilization.  Radiation sterilization.  Monitoring of sterilization efficiency by physical, chemical and bacteriological methods.

Principles of Disinfection

Types of disinfectants; dynamics of disinfection; factors influencing efficiency of disinfection process; evaluation of disinfectant activity.
Preservation:  Basic principles; Types; choice (factors to consider); Preservation of sterile pharmaceutical products.

PHAR 222 Physical Pharmacy                        (3 Credits)
This course provides for an understanding of the physical concepts applicable to pharmacy and an appreciation of the scientific basis of pharmaceutical formulation, compounding and mixing.
The course deals with the following characteristics of matter pertaining to pharmacy.
Introduction to States of Matter – liquid, solid, gaseous states, polymorphism, intermolecular forces such as phase equilibria and phase rule; surface and interfacial phenomena; liquid state (liquefaction of gases, aerosols, vapour pressure of liquid,  boiling point); solid and crystalline state: crystalline solids, X-ray diffraction, polymorphism, crystallization, effloresencse,  Desiccation, Hygroscopic substances, Deliquescence.  Solid and Liquid Equilibrium:  Melting point and intermolecular forces, sublimation, cooling of liquid mixtures, eutectic mixtures. Surface and Interfacial phenomenon -viscosity and rheology. Disperse Systems – Suspensions and emulsions will be covered in detail including stabilization processes. Reaction Kinetics and drug stability.

PHAR 223 Pharmaceutical Microbiology II Practical                   (1 Credit)
In this course, students will become familiar with the types of equipment used for sterilization and disinfection in formulation and manufacture of sterile pharmaceutical products.  Students will acquire hands-on practical experience with the formulation and preparation of the following sterile pharmaceutical products: parenteral products, ophthalmic solutions, occulenta, (in single and multiple dose forms); surgical dressings.  Students will learn aseptic techniques applicable to the preparation of thermolaile sterile products.  Students will learn biochemical characteristics of micro-organisms; perform antibiotic sensitivity tests and sterility testing protocols.

PHAR 224 Physical Pharmacy Practical   (1 Credit)
This course will provide students with an understanding of the practical aspects of the relevance of the following phenomena in pharmacy: Thermodynamics; solutions and phase Equilibria.  Ionic solutions and Electrolytic Equilibria; Reaction kinetics; Disperse Systems and Rheology.

PHAR 321 Pharmaceutical Technology                      (3 Credits)
In this course students will learn the theoretical basis of processes employed in the pharmaceutical industry for the manufacture and quality assurance of pharmaceutical products. The course will cover good manufacturing practices in general, and specifically, the following processes: Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Testing; Separation; Packaging; Stability of products. Quality Assurance and Control. The following product types will also be considered: Solutions, Emulsions, suspensions, and Extractives; Powders; Oral solid dosage forms; coated dosage forms; sustained-release drug delivery systems.

PHAR 322 Principles of Immunology                  (3 Credits)
This course will provide an awareness of the immunological basis of disease and an understanding of immunotherapy as an aspect of pharmaceutical science.  The course will involve a consideration of:  the immune system-characteristics of antigens and antibodies, Humoral immunity, cellular immunity; Tumor immunology; Immunogenetics; Immunological deficiencies; Types of immunity and hypersensitivity reactions. Active Immunization:  Vaccines, Toxoids.
Passive Immunization: Human immune sera, Animal immune sera

PHAR 323 Pharmaceutical Technology Practical     (1 Credit)
This course will enable students acquire practical skills necessary for small and medium scale manufacture of pharmaceutical products in the laboratory.  In addition, students will be exposed to real industrial conditions of pharmaceutical product manufacture through supervised industrial attachments.  Students will become familiar with various industrial equipments and obtain operational experience in their use.  Students will be given practical manufacturing exercises to enable them develop competencies in pharmaceutical technology applicable to: Tabletting, Capsuling, Rheology, Solubilization, Particle size analysis, drug stability assessment etc.

PHAR  324  Principles of Immunology Practical               (1 Credit)
In this course students will learn practical aspects of the production of immunopharmaceuticals.  These will include: Biologic Immunogens for Active Immunity-vaccines and Toxoids; Biologic Immunogens for Passive Immunity-Human Immune Sera (Homologous Sera) and Animal Immune Sera (Heterologous Sera).  Students will also learn the clinical conditions for use and the criteria for storage of these products.

PHAR 420 Pharmaceutics Project                      (6 Credits)
This is a final year project in pharmaceutics which will be taken in Semesters 7 and 8.  The format of the course is similar to PHAS 410, PHAS 430, PHAS 440 and PHAS 450. (Please see PHAS 410).

PHAR 421 Applied Immunology            (3 Credits)
This course will highlight aspects of the applications of immunology in pharmacotherapy.  Students will appreciate the immunological basis of the use of immunodiagnostic drugs, immunosuppressant drugs, immunostimulant drugs and immunoassay of drugs.  The phenomenon of drug induced allergy will also be part of this course.

PHAR 423 Principles of Pharmaceutics (Prerequisite PHAS 123) (2 Credits)
In this course, the student will appreciate the principles of drug design as outlined in preformulation and formulation studies. The course will highlight various techniques in drug formulation studies including micro and nano-formulations, biotechnology, as well as methods of testing the quality of the formulations. The course will cover all dosage forms, and also consider medicated topical applications and aerosols.