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Course Schedule

PHAR 151  Computer Literacy I    (1 Credit)

This course provides students with fundamental knowledge by way of introduction to informatics.  This will include the following: Historical development of computers and computer networks – digital computers and analog computers; Basic parts of a computer system, how the computer system works, hardware and software of computer system.  Basic computer applications – word processing, computer graphics, calculations and simulations e.g. Spreadsheet, statistical software and data representation; information management, search algorithms and databases; Global information infrastructure – structure and organization of the world wide web (www), www browsers, information search in www, search engines educational resources in www, pharmaceutical resources in www, molecular and bioinformatics.

PHAR 152  Computer Literacy II   (Prerequisite: PHAS 151)     (1 Credit)
Will provide the students with the requisite knowledge that would enable them develop further computer literacy skills.  The course will prepare students to develop competence to describe the structure and functions of an operating system and apply software in the practice of pharmacy and healthcare delivery.  Application software versus system software (operating system) with suitable examples. The learning opportunities in this course will include the following: Robotics and automation in pharmacy; integrated healthcare information systems; legal and ethical aspects of information technology; commercial applications of information technology and the use of computer technology in drug information and pharmaceutical error prevention.

PHAR 153  Orientation to Pharmacy   (2 Credits)
In this course students will be introduced to pharmacy as a discipline in Science, as an industry, as a profession in healthcare delivery and as a social service to the community.  Students will be expected to understand and appreciate the scope, evolution of pharmacy globally and in Ghana, the ethics of the profession, the branches of Pharmacy: Hospital Pharmacy, Community Pharmacy, Industrial Pharmacy, Academic and Research Pharmacy and Regulatory Pharmacy.  Students will be made aware of career opportunities and responsibilities in the job market and the requirements for training and registration for practice.

PHAR 154  Psychology and Behavioural Science (2 Credits)
In this course students will learn the relevance of psychology in pharmacy practice.  The role of the pharmacist in getting patients to accept pharmaceutical care will be emphasized.  The course will entail: definition, brief history and scope of psychology, illness behaviour, understanding the patient, effective counselling to ensure therapeutic confidence and patient compliance.  Students will be enabled to appreciate the significance of good inter-personal relationships in healthcare delivery.  Aspects of behavioural science and industrial and social psychology will be considered.

PHAR 251  Biostatistics           (2 Credits)
This course will offer students learning opportunities to acquire knowledge in the principles of statistics, especially as they apply to analysis and evaluation of biomedical systems including pharmacotherapy.  Evaluation of pharmaceutical interventions in public health issues, using appropriate statistical methods, will be given prominence.  The course will emphasize the following:  Presentation of sample data; Measures of central tendency and dispersion; Probability distribution; Sampling procedures; Estimation – application of Student’s t Test, the Chi- Square Test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Experimental Design; Hypothesis testing; Fitting a line; Regression theory; Correlation and Contingency tables.  Students will be expected to develop competencies in the application of these statistical principles for the assessment of pharmacotherapy in the management of diseases.  The practical significance of biostatistics in health care delivery systems will be emphasized.

PHAR 252  Chemical Pathology     (2 Credits)
An awareness of the nature and extent of deviation from normal values and features of physiology, biochemistry and micro-anatomy in disease is an essential pre-requisite for effective pharmaceutical care.  This course will provide the necessary knowledge in chemical pathology for determining remedial measures to be taken.  Students will acquire an understanding of normal and disease – related changes in biochemical and physiological parameters occurring in tissue and body fluids, cells and tissues, organs and systems of the body.  Students will be expected to know relevant terminology and pharmaceutical mechanisms underlying procedures that are employed to restore normalcy to these parameters.

PHAR 253  Entrepreneurial skills (Practical)         (2 Credits)
This course will enable students to acquire skills as entrepreneurs in pharmacy practice particularly in a highly competitive technological and economic environment.  Students will be expected to develop the ability to: Recognize and assess their entrepreneurial potential; Appreciate the need to be creative and innovative in their profession, Recognize the importance of action planning and effective communication to ensure prudent decision-making and develop attitudes that will make them focused, motivated and open to change.  Students will also develop the ability to apply basic concepts and tools involved in the creation and functioning of a new and profitable technology- based venture.  The course will entail: Evaluation of opportunities, assessment and acquisition of resources; development of a business plan and Assessment of the implications of prevailing business climate and economic and professional environment for establishing a new enterprise.

PHAR 254 Chemical Pathology Practical       (1 Credit)
This course deals with the practical aspects of PHAS 252.  Students will gain practical experience in methodology for measuring parameters in chemical pathology. Students will be expected to be familiar with equipment, reagents and histopathological techniques employed in chemical pathology.  Diagnostic value and clinical significance of changes in the biochemical and physiological parameters will be discussed.

PHAR 351 Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability   (3 Credits)

This course is designed to equip students with the appreciation of patient-based clinical pharmacotherapy. Although an overview of basic concepts of pharmacokinetics including absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, half-life, elimination rate, area under the curve and their mathematical interpretations will be reviewed, specific case-studies will remain the main focus so that at the end of the course, students would be able to explain compartmental models given their clinical correlates and describe the principle of superposition and how it applies to multiple drug dosing. Define the model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Students will be able to determine appropriate drug regimen of patients receiving aminoglycosides, vancomycin, theophylline, phenytoin and digoxin and construct plasma drug concentration versus times curves of typical patients and use properties of the curve to determine patient’s pharmacokinetic parameters and calculate alpha (), beta (β), and intercepts A and B for a drug conforming to a two compartment model.

PHAR 352  Social and Behavioural Pharmacy         (3 Credits)

This course will provide students with knowledge of the principles involved in pharmacy practice.  Students will be expected to understand the legal and ethical principles of the practice of pharmacy. They will be expected to acquire full knowledge of the provisions of the Pharmacy Act 489, 1994 and its Legislative Instrument (L.I.1645 of 1998) and also the Food and Drugs Law 1992, PNDC L 305B and amendments. Students will be introduced to the code of Ethics of the Pharmaceutical Society of Ghana: Professional ethics, professional characteristics and responsibilities.    They must also acquire thorough knowledge of the following; Institutional patient care, Ambulatory patient care, Long-term patient care facilities, the role of the pharmacist in public health, behavioural determinants of the patient, patient communication, drug education and information, patient compliance, the prescription, drug interactions, clinical drug literature, the pharmacist and the National Health Insurance Scheme.

PHAR 353  Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics       (2 Credits)
Pharmacoepidemiology is the discipline that seeks to understand the use of and the effects of medicines in large numbers of people.  Pharmacoepidemiological studies aim to quantify the risks and benefits of drug treatment in different populations and findings can be used to decide on the most effective medicine in a patient or populace. The course will introduce students to the descrsiption and concept of pharmacoepidemiology and its relevance to pharmacy practice.
Pharmacoeconomics entails evaluation of ways and means of applying limited resources to provide the best pharmacotherapy. In other words, the study encompasses analysis of costs and outcomes associated with the use of pharmaceutical products and services. It is closely related to outcomes research which is the scientific measurement of the impact of antecedent health care.
During this course general knowledge and methods of analysis of both above mentioned disciplines will be given. Upon completion of this course the student will: Understand fundamental statistical concepts and methods in Pharmacoepidemiology; Appreciate the role of the statistical concepts and methods in drug development, drug use, drug safety monitoring and drug safety research; Appreciate and be able to report on adverse reactions; Compare and contrast cost-effectiveness, cost-minimization, cost-utility and cost-benefit analyses; Describe at least two sources of cost data; Describe how to obtain clinical and humanistic outcomes data; Compare and contrast the decision-analytic and statistical methods of modeling a disease intervention; Be able to calculate an expected cost and an expected outcome using a decision tree.

PHAR 354 Community Pharmacy Practice Practical     (1 Credit)
In this course students will be exposed to real life situations of Community Pharmacy Practice.  The School will link up with selected Community pharmacies where students will be assigned short periods of professional mentorships under identified pharmacists.  The School will set up a Model Community Pharmacy for teaching in an actual professional setting. Students will be expected to gain supervised experience in the Model Pharmacy practice.  Students will present written reports of case studies assigned to them.

PHAR 450  Pharmacy Practice Project      (6 Credits)
(As for PHAS 410, PHAS 420)

PHAR 451 Pharmacotherapy and Disease Management     (3 Credits)
In this course students will learn the general application of drugs to the treatment of diseases.  The course will entail identification and recognition of: Pathophysiology of Diseases; Factors influencing the choice of appropriate pharmacotherapeutic intervention; Medication Implications e.g. drug interactions, adverse drug events and iatrogenic effects; Patient compliance issues; Patient counseling issues; Therapeutic outcomes; and Follow-up pharmaceutical care.

PHAR 452 Patient Treatment Assessment              (4 Credits)
In this course students will be given access to selected patients on drug treatment on ward rounds and at the OPD Pharmacy.  Students will have opportunity to determine the patient’s response to therapy. This will be done in consultation with health-care providers. Subsequent to this, students will be expected to evaluate the merits and demerits of the treatment given in the context of the broad principles of pharmacotherapy.