2019-nCorona Virus Outbreak

Starting February 3, 2020 - Ending February 3, 2021
2019-nCorona Virus Outbreak
 

Introduction

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV)A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans. This new strain also means information about the manifestation and management is also evolving.

 

Transmission

Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people.  SARS-CoV was transmitted from cats to humans and MERS-CoV from camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans. 

When the virus spreads to humans it undergoes changes that allow it to be transmitted  from humans to humans.

 

Signs and symptoms

Common signs of infection include

  • respiratory symptoms
  • fever
  • cough
  • shortness of breath
  • breathing difficulties.

    In more severe cases, infection can cause
  • pneumonia,
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome,
  • kidney failure and even death. 

    Prevention:

    Standard recommendations to prevent infection spread include
  • Frequent hand washing with soap under running water or alcohol-based hand rub.
  • Covering mouth and nose with tissue or flexed elbow when coughing and sneezing. Wash hands afterwards and discard the tissue.
  • thoroughly cooking meat and eggs.
  • Avoid unprotected close contact with anyone with fever and cough, and seek medical care if you have a fever, cough or difficulty in breathing.
  • If you become sick while travelling, inform the crew, seek medical attention and share your travel history
  • Avoid direct unprotected contact with live animals and surfaces in contact with animals.

As this is a new virus, there is no vaccine available for prevention yet.

 

Management

There is no cure and no specific nCoV treatment for patients with suspected or confirmed cases. Therefore the main stay of management is:

  • Immediate implementation of infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. This includes quarantining suspects and contacts for 14 days.
  • Early supportive therapy and monitoring
  • Management of respiratory problems
  • Prevention of complications