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INTRODUCTION

The Earth Sciences programme concentrates on topic areas which (i) enhance employment prospects, (ii) develop the role of Earth Science in society and its importance to environmental issues, and (iii) provide a background of knowledge, practical skills and field experience in the Earth Sciences. This is achieved by providing a broad foundation for Earth Science study and opportunities for subsequent specialisation. The programme provides a strong field-based culture in all topics in the Earth Sciences and offers a specialisation in one of these fields in the final year: Geology, Hydrogeology, Mineral Exploration, Petroleum Geoscience, Engineering Geology and Environmental Earth Science.

Students engage in a range of learning and teaching opportunities including lectures, laboratory-based practical classes, and fieldwork including field-based classes and guided independent study. Compulsory inter-semester fieldwork at Levels 200 to 400 provides opportunities for guided investigations within small groups and in environments substantially contrasting to the lecture room and laboratory. Practical skills are also acquired by students through industrial attachment during the long vacation.

COURSE OUTLINE

LEVEL 100

FIRST SEMESTER

Core

Code

Title

Credits

UGRC 150

Critical Thinking and Practical Reasoning

3

EASC 101

Physical Geology

3

CHEM 111

General Chemistry I

3

CHEM 110

Practical Chemistry

1

PHYS 105

Practical Physics I

1

PHYS 143

Mechanics and Thermal Physics

3

Select 3 credits

MATH 101

General Mathematics

3

MATH 121

Algebra and Trigonometry

3

Total

16

SECOND SEMESTER

Core

Code

Title

Credits

URGC 110

Academic Writing I

3

UGRC 131-136

Understanding Human Society

3

EASC 102

Geological Map Work

1

EASC 104

Historical Geology

2

Select 6 – 7 credits

CHEM 112

General Chemistry II

3

PHYS 106

Practical Physics II

1

PHYS 144

Electricity and Magnetism

3

MATH 122

Calculus I

3

Total

 

15 – 16

 

LEVEL 200

FIRST SEMESTER

Core

Code

Title

Credits

UGRC 210

Academic Writing II

3

EASC 219

Practical Crystallography

1

EASC 213

Geological Structures

2

EASC 215

Stratigraphy and Sedimentation

3

EASC 217

Optical Mineralogy

2

EASC 209

Earth’s Materials and Resources

2

Total

 

13

Electives

EASC 211

Natural Hazards and Disasters

2

PHYS 241

Atomic Physics and Quantum Phenomena

2

CHEM 213

Physical Chemistry I

2

CHEM 271

Analytical Chemistry I

2

MATH 223

Calculus

3

 

SECOND SEMESTER

Core

Code

Title

Credits

UGRC 220-238

Introduction to African Studies

3

EASC 210

Geological Field Methods I

3

EASC 222

Petrography

2

EASC 214

Principles of Geochemistry

2

EASC 216

Fundamentals of Geophysics

2

EASC 218        

Introduction to Paleontology

2

Total

 

14

Electives

EASC 280

Internship in Earth Science I

1

PHYS 246

Nuclear Physics I

2

PHYS 248

Introduction to Physics of Materials

2

CHEM 252

Inorganic Chemistry I

2

MATH 222

Vector Mechanics

3

LEVEL 300

FIRST SEMESTER

Core

Code

Title

Credits

EASC 310

Geological Field Methods II

3

EASC 321

Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

3

EASC 325

Fundamentals of Hydrogeology and Hydrology

2

EASC 317

Environmental Geochemistry

2

Total

 

10

Electives (Select 5 – 8 credits)

EASC 323

Soil Mechanics

3

EASC 331

Computer Applications in the Earth Sciences

3

EASC 333

Environmental Impact Assessment

2

EASC 335

Applied Geophysics

3

EASC 380

Internship in Earth Science II

1

 

SECOND SEMESTER

Core

Code

Title

Credits

EASC 342

Geology of Ghana

3

EASC 326

Aerial Photo Interpretation

2

EASC 328

Structural Geology and Tectonics

3

EASC 324

Economic Geology

3

Total

 

11

Electives (Select 4 – 7 credits)

EASC 332

Introduction to Petroleum Geology

2

EASC 334

Organic Geochemistry

2

EASC 336

Mineral Economics

2

EASC 338

Earthquake Seismology and Disaster Risk Reduction

3

EASC 322

Environmental Pollution

2

 

LEVEL 400

FIRST SEMESTER

Core

Code

Title

Credits

EASC 420

Project

3

EASC 471

Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

3

EASC 470

Communication and Entrepreneurship in the Earth Sciences

1

Total

 

7

EASC 450

Geological Field Mapping  (For Geology Students)

3

 

Electives (Select minimum of 2 courses from any one Group)                                  

Code

Title

Credits

Group A: Geology

EASC 417

Mineralogy

3

EASC 419

Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

3

EASC 437

Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry

3

EASC 465

Micropaleontology/Palynology

3

Group B: Water Resources Studies

EASC 401

Hydrology

3

EASC 405

Hydrogeology

3

EASC 407

Integrated Water Resources Management

2

Group C: Mineral Exploration and Management

EASC 439

Exploration Methods, Planning and Management

3

EASC 447

Mineral Projects Feasibility Studies

2

EASC 449

Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation

2

Group D: Petroleum Geoscience

EASC 461

Basin Analysis

3

EASC 463

Basin Tectonics

3

EASC 465

Micropaleontology/Palynology

3

Group E: Engineering Geology

EASC 457

Rock Mechanics

3

EASC 459

Bearing Capacity and Slope Stability Analysis

3

EASC 467

Geology of Civil Engineering Projects

3

Group F: Environmental Earth Science

EASC 401

Hydrology

3

EASC 407

Integrated Water Resources Management

2

EASC 409

Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry

3

 

SECOND SEMESTER

Core

Code

Title

Credits

EASC 420

Project

3

EASC 404

Statistical Methods in Earth Science

2

EASC 460

Field Exercises in Earth Science

1

EASC 470

Communication and Entrepreneurship in the Earth Sciences

1

Total

 

7

Electives (Select minimum of 2 courses from one Group)

Code

Title

Credits

Group A: Geology

EASC 446

Sedimentary Petrology

3

EASC 448

Geology of Africa

3

EASC 454

Geochronology

2

Group B: Water Resources Studies

EASC 426

Rural Water Supply

2

EASC 438

Water Quality and Hydrochemistry

2

EASC 458

Exploration Geophysics

3

Group C: Mineral Exploration and Management

EASC 458

Exploration Geophysics

3

EASC 462

Exploration Geochemistry

3

EASC 464

Mining, Oil and Gas, and the Environment

3

Group D: Petroleum Geoscience

EASC 446

Sedimentary Petrology

3

EASC 466

Petroleum Reservoir Geophysics

3

EASC 468

Reservoir Engineering

2

EASC 464

Mining, Oil and Gas, and the Environment

3

Group E: Engineering Geology

EASC 458

Exploration Geophysics

3

EASC 468

Reservoir Engineering

2

EASC 472

Site Investigations

3

EASC 474

Rocks as a Construction Material

2

Group F: Environmental Earth Science

EASC 438

Water Quality and Hydrochemistry

2

EASC 458

Exploration Geophysics

3

EASC 464

Mining, Oil and Gas, and the Environment

3

 

COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

 

LEVEL 100

EASC 101:     Physical Geology

Physical Geology is the science of the earth and the processes that are acting upon it. The course cover the following topics: minerals; volcanism and extrusive rocks; intrusive activities and origin of igneous rocks; weathering and soil; sediments, sedimentary rocks and structures; metamorphism, metamorphic rocks and hydrothermal rocks; the rock cycle; mass wasting; streams and landscape; groundwater; glaciers and glaciation; deserts and wind action; shorelines and coastal processes; crustal deformation and folds; faults; earthquakes; the Earth's interior; the ocean floor; plate tectonics; mountain building. The course may include trips to the field to reinforce geological concepts learned in class and laboratory.

 

EASC 102:     Geological Map Work

This course is mainly concerned with the interpretation of geological maps and the relationship between the landscape and underlying rocks. It covers the recognition and interpretation of geological structures from maps.

 

EASC 104:     Historical Geology

Historical Geology deals with the events that took place all over the world, throughout time. The syllabus covers the following topics: the structure of the Earth, the origin of the Universe, the origin of the Earth, and origin of the elements; the tempo of Earth history: catastrophic and/or uniformitarian; age of the Earth; time, including the vastness of geologic time, relative dating, radioactivity and isotopic dating; Geological Time Scale; fossils and fossilization; recognition, correlation, and interpretation of strata; origin and evolution of life; changes in sea level and climate; the evolution of continents; the geological record: events in Precambrian, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.

 

LEVEL 200

EASC 210:     Geological Field Methods I

This is a practical field-based course consisting of: (i) Lecture/practical sessions on geological mapping techniques, construction and interpretation of geological maps and cross-sections, field safety and welfare, and field trip planning and organisation. (ii) ‘live-in’ field geological mapping providing 'hands-on' instruction in geological mapping techniques and data collection for preparation of geological maps and cross sections.

Details of the course content are as follows:

Semester I: Introduction to geological mapping; geological compass and field navigation; field use of compass to plot data; GPS in geological mapping; field mapping techniques; recording of field data; identification and description of sedimentary rocks in the field; identification and description of sedimentary structures; collection and measurement of paleocurrent data; excursion briefing and organisation. Hands-on Exercises: scale calculation & conversion; measurement of a pace; plotting a grid from GPS coordinates; pace and compass closed traverse.

Inter-Semester Break: Field mapping, with supervision, in a sedimentary terrain (e.g., the Sekondian Group in the Sekondi/Takoradi area).

Semester II: Analysis and interpretation of data collected from the field. Preparation of geological maps and sections, and submission of Field Notebook. Hands-on Exercises: Analysis of structural and lithological data collected from the field. Preparation and digitization of geological maps and submission of Field Notebook. Preparation of a short report on the sedimentology of the studied formation.

 

EASC 219:     Practical Crystallography

This is a practical course involving the essentials of geometrical crystallography and internal order of crystals. The detail syllabus is as follows: Essentials of geometrical crystallography: Crystal description, symmetry elements, crystal symmetry, crystallographic axes. Parameters, indices, crystallographic notation, principal laws geometric crystallographhy. Faces, forms, zones, crystal habit, measurement of crystal angles.  Law of rational indices, classification of crystals, crystal systems, thirty-two crystal classes, spherical projection, stereographic projection, intergrowth of crystals. Essentials of Internal Order of crystals: Symmetry elements, space lattice, unit cell, space groups.

 

EASC 222:     Petrography

This practical course covers the study of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks in hand specimen and thin sections. Concepts are illustrated by rock suites from Ghana and elsewhere.

 

EASC 213:     Geological Structures

Definitions, types, elements, scales and classification of structures. Primary and secondary structures. Fundamental principles of structural geology; petrofabrics; structural analyses; significance of structural geology in geological mapping and mining.

 

 

 

EASC 214:     Principles of Geochemistry

This course intends to familiarize students with the tools of geochemistry. These include the tools of thermodynamics, kinetics, aquatic chemistry, and trace element geochemistry. The course is divided into two parts. Part I covers the theory and application of thermodynamics and kinetics to processes controlling the composition of natural waters, and basic mineral-water-atmospheric gas interactions. Part II covers trace elements in igneous processes, including Goldschmidt’s classification of the elements and the geochemical periodic table, element partitioning between coexisting minerals, and trace element distribution during partial melting and crystallization.

 

EASC 215:     Stratigraphy and Sedimentation

The course is divided up into three parts. The first part deals with the basic aspects of sedimentation and the formation of sedimentary rocks. This will provide the framework to interpret the processes of sedimentation responsible for forming different types of sedimentary rocks. The second part will look at the dominant types of environments where sediments are deposited to furnish the actualistic background to interpret ancient environments. The third part entails synthesizing sedimentologic and stratigraphic data to permit interpretations of Earth history.

Course outline: Sedimentary processes, environments and facies; properties and classification of sediments and sedimentary rocks; sedimentary textures and structures; stratigraphic nomenclature and the stratigraphic column; principles of stratigraphy. Laboratory work emphasizes the description and analysis of sedimentary rock bodies.

 

EASC 216:     Fundamentals of Geophysics

This course is an introduction to basic principles of geophysics as applicable to exploration and environmental problems, and solid earth. Topics covered include general earth properties (size, mass, and moment of inertia), seismology (wave equation, P, S, and surface waves, seismic reflection and refraction), gravity (gravity anomalies, rheology, flexure, geodesy, and geoid), magnetics (dipole field, paleomagnetics, and seafloor spreading), electrical, geophysical well logging, radioactivity and geochronology, and heat flow.

 

EASC 217:     Optical Mineralogy

This course is designed to prepare students for the study of rocks in thin section (i.e. petrography). Topics to be covered include the elementary principles of crystal optics, familiarization with the microscope, the immersion method, isotropic, uniaxial, and biaxial optics, and the detailed study of rock-forming minerals in thin section. By the end of the course students should be able to readily identify the major rock-forming minerals in thin section. In addition students will learn how to find the necessary information to identify an unknown and perhaps never studied mineral. In order to accomplish the first two objectives, students will learn about the underlying concepts related to mineral behaviour in transmitted/polarized light and the use of the petrographic microscope.

 

EASC 209:     Earth’s Materials and Resources

The course is made up of two parts. The first part concerns Earth's materials, including the atom, elements, compounds and minerals, crystallinity, the importance of silicate minerals, physical properties of minerals, and formation, identification and description of minerals and rocks. Earth Materials is a laboratory based, however, instead of dedicating a specific day of the week to laboratory work, the lecture and laboratory elements will be integrated. Everyday life and the fabric of modern civilization depend on using the Earth’s physical resources: water to drink; fuel to burn; rocks and minerals to build roads and houses; metals for machinery, electronics, and communications. The second part of the course is about the occurrence, availability, exploitation and sustainability of these essential resources. It also consider their origins, how to find and extract them, and the environmental consequences of exploitation. The course may include several one-day long trips to the field to reinforce geological and environmental concepts learned in class and laboratory.

 

EASC 211:     Natural Hazards and Disasters

The course is divided into two parts. Part I involves natural disasters and their environmental impact and covers earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, mass wasting, slope stability, floods, river management and human impact, subsidence, the greenhouse effect and ozone depletion. Part II provides an introduction to natural hazards. The lectures cover the following topics: hazards concept and context; spatial variability and human persistence; hazard forecasting and risk assessment; the perception of hazards and extreme events; experiencing hazards; adjustment to hazards; the human impact; and hazards: present and future prospect; disaster management in Ghana.

 

EASC 218:     Introduction to Palaeontology

Brief introduction study of foraminefera, diatoms, cocoliths etc. Nature of the organism and geologic importance. Important index fossils, Environmental stratigraphy, environmental reconstruction and the earth science. Identification and sketching of some specimens of the phyla of organisms indicated above.

EASC 280:     Internship in Earth Science I

Long vacation industrial attachment to a governmental or private sector geoscience institution/ company. Credit is contingent on submission of a final report by student and an assessment report by industry.

 

LEVEL 300

EASC 310:     Geological Field Methods II

This is a practical field-based course consisting of: (i) Lecture/practical sessions on geological mapping techniques, and construction and interpretation of geological maps and cross-sections. (ii) ‘live-in’ field geological mapping providing 'hands-on' instruction in geological mapping techniques and data collection for preparation of geological maps and cross sections.

Details of the course content are as follows:

Semester I: GIS: geoid, latitude/longitude, UTM, national map grids. GPS: theory, satellites, GPS time. Cross-sections: selection, orientation, layout, construction; igneous & metamorphic rocks in the field; Geological structures in the field; Excursion briefing and organisation.

Inter-Semester Break: Field mapping, with supervision, in an igneous/metamorphic terrain (e.g., the Dahomeyan/Togo/Buem Structural Units in the Tsito – Peki – Ho areas)

Semester II: Interpreting field data:- Geological history & compilation of a (schematic) rock relation diagram. Hands-on Exercises: Cross-section of field traverse. Analysis of structural data collected from the field. Preparation and digitization of geological maps and submission of Field Notebook and report.

 

 

EASC 321:     Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology         

This course covers the introduction to the origin and evolution of magmatic systems, and metamorphic systems and processes. Concepts are illustrated by rock suites from Ghana and elsewhere.

 

EASC 342:     Geology of Ghana    

This course covers the following: Introduction to the geology of the various geological units of Ghana: i.e., Birimian, Tarkwaian, Voltaian, coastal sedimentary basins (Sekondian, Tano basin, Keta basin), Togo, Buem, and the Dahomeyan. Lithotectonic evolution of the geological units of Ghana; Metallogenesis; Theories on the evolution of the geology of Ghana.

 

EASC 323:     Soil Mechanics          

Soil classification; Practical importance of index properties; Principal types of soils; Size and shape of soil particles; Properties of very fine soil fractions; Mechanical analysis of soils: Bulk density; Unit weight; Atterberg limits:-Liquid limit; Plastic limit; Plasticity index; Liquidity index; Shrinkage limit; Sensitivity; Phase relationships. Clay-Silt-Sand-Gravel-Loess- Peat-Fills-Soil Admixtures. Total and effective stresses; Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion; Shear strength tests; Shear strength of sands; Shear strength of saturated clays; Shear strength of partially-saturated soils; Residual strength. Laboratory Work.

 

EASC 324:     Economic Geology   

The course covers the study of economic mineral deposits including industrial minerals and fossil fuels. Topics covered include: Ore bearing fluids; Classification of ore deposits; Primary sources of diamond; Hydrothermal precious metal deposits; Sedimentary ore deposits; Industrial minerals. May include field visits to selected ore and industrial mineral deposits in Ghana.

 

EASC 325:     Fundamentals of Hydrogeology and Hydrology

This course provides an overview of water on the planet and its interaction with geologic materials. The first part of the course describes surface water processes, including precipitation, evaporation, snow hydrology, and runoff processes. The second part of the course follows water as it moves to the subsurface as soil water and ground water. Lecture topics include properties of aquifers, principals of groundwater flow, regional groundwater flow, wells, basin development, and water quality management.

 

EASC 326:     Aerial Photo Interpretation

Introduction, historical, photogeology, types of airphotos, problems of photographing, scale, three-dimensional vision, parallax- photogrametry, uses of aerial photos. Principles of aerial photo interpretation, colour & tune, texture, shapes & pattern, topography and man-made features. Drainage wadis. Photo interpretation of rocks, Quaternary deposits, geological structures, and geomorphological features. Morphometric analysis of drainage basins, drainage networks, order and pattern.

 

EASC 317:     Environmental Geochemistry

The fundamental geochemical principles studied in EAES 204 are applied to the understanding of specific types of contaminants and contaminated environments: heavy metal contamination; landfills; pollutant transport in groundwater, environmental geochemistry of mineral deposits; acid rock and acid mine drainage processes; geochemistry of radioactive waste disposal; and geochemistry of organic compound contamination.

 
EASC 328:     Structural Geology and Tectonics

Descriptive, kinematic, and dynamic analysis of geologic structures; field identification of geological structures; types of deformation and related structures. Plate tectonics and relationship to the tectonic stresses affecting the earth. Detailed description of thrusts systems and associated structures. Strike-slip faults and second order wrench structures. Extensional tectonics and continental rifts. Structural characteristics of continental rifts and the relationship between individual normal faults. Transfer zones between individual normal faults and between half grabens. Structural inversion.

 

EASC 331:     Computer Applications in the Earth Sciences

Introduction to the basics of computer applications in the earth sciences. Introduction and use of various earth science related modeling and analytical programmes

 

EASC 332:     Introduction to Petroleum Geology

This course provides an overview of the importance of energy in our lives, the very significant role that fossil fuels like petroleum and coal have in supplying this energy, the environmental effects of producing, transporting, refining, using and burning these fuels, how petroleum is found and how wells are drilled to produce it, the conditions in nature required for petroleum formation and trapping, and the role that geologists and geophysicists have in petroleum exploration and production. Course details: concepts, terms, and history of petroleum and energy use in Ghana and the world; reservoir rocks and their fluids; drilling and logging of a well; the subsurface environment of sedimentary basins; generation and migration of petroleum; traps and seals.

 

EASC 333:     Environmental Impact Assessment

Evolution of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) processes, the concept of sustainable development, national legislation on the environment and the EIA process. Identification and assessment of environmental impacts of development and their implication on overall decision-making process. Tools of impact assessment and mitigation: scooping studies, demographic, climatic, health, and ecological, social, economic impact assessment. Environmental management systems: environmental auditing and reporting. Land disturbance and reclamation, project decommissioning and. Case studies in mining and other geology environmental management.

 

EASC 334:        Organic Geochemistry

This course focuses on organic carbon geochemistry and its use to solve problems of geological and environmental relevance. The subjects treated include organic carbon in space, the global carbon cycle, chemical composition of biogenic matter, sedimentology of organic matter, organic matter diagenesis, molecular fossils, geopolymers, generation and composition of fossil fuels, environmental organic geochemistry, and carbon stable isotope geochemistry.

 

 

 

EASC 335:     Applied Geophysics 

This course is a study of geophysical techniques applied to solving geoscience problems in resource exploration and development, natural hazards, and pollution control. The course is intended to be a practical, hands-on, field-oriented course on the applications of geophysics to these problems. For each topic, the development will proceed from basic principles (theory) through methodology and applications, to case studies. Applications will be emphasized; theory will be kept to essentials. The basic principles and operational procedures of each method will be presented, along with discussions of where the method is and is not applicable. Case studies will be included to illustrate applications.

 

EASC 336:     Mineral Economics

This course provides an understanding of the broad aspects of the mineral industry, ore reserve classification and estimation, and project evaluation criteria. The course covers the following: uniqueness of the mining sector investment, mine taxation, ore reserve estimation, valuation, mineral projects evaluation and selection criteria, introduction to Ghana’s mineral policy, and environmental considerations in mining sector management.

 

EASC 338:     Earthquake Seismology and Disaster Risk Reduction

Lectures covers the following: earthquake seismology, earthquake mechanics, wave propagation, earth structure, instrumentation, interpretation of seismograms, focal mechanisms, faults, paleoseismology, seismotectonics, earthquake locations and magnitudes, etc. Earthquake hazard assessment including use of fault and earthquake history, strong ground motion, attenuation, and related information. Laboratory work will focus on the interpretation and analyses of digital earthquake data using digital and analog seismograms, analyses of local earthquake data on a workstation, plotting and interpretation of earthquake record sections, interpretation of paper record seismograms, and spectral analyses of strong ground motion records and probabilistic risk assessment.

 

EASC 321:     Environmental Pollution     

Definition of pollution; major categories and sources of air pollution; anthropogenic impacts. Dangers of some air and water pollutants, dangers of stratospheric ozone depletion and radon in indoor air; Types and effects of water pollution; Detecting pollution; Thermal pollution and thermal shocks; Damages of air pollution on human health, vegetation and building materials, control and monitoring of pollution; Acid rain and deposition; Air pollution control; Measurement of Air and Water pollution; Air and Water pollutant standards index from EPA and WHO. Status of water quality in developed and developing countries; Groundwater problems and ways to protect this resource; Human waste disposal.

 

EASC 380:     Internship in Earth Science II

Long vacation industrial attachment to a governmental or private sector institution/company. Credit is contingent on submission of a final report by student and an assessment report by industry.

LEVEL 400

EASC 401:     Hydrology

The course covers the following: the hydrological cycle, hydrometeorology and climate, hydrometric networks and catchment morphometry, precipitation measurements and analysis, evaporation measurements and analysis, soil moisture, river flow measurements and analysis, rainfall-runoff analysis, hydrographs. Hydrological instruments are introduced; students employ the instruments to make field measurements and perform a range of data analysis and exercises

 

EASC 404:     Statistical Methods in Earth Science

Techniques of probability and data analysis as applied to problems in the earth and environmental sciences. Topics include probability, data description, hypothesis testing, time series analysis, correlation and regression analyses, and multivariate methods. Laboratory work focuses on the use of statistical software packages for data analysis.

 

EASC 405:         Hydrogeology

Groundwater and the hydrologic cycle, Groundwater resource evaluation, Well drilling methods, Well screens and methods of sediment size analysis, Water well design, Installation and removal of screens, Water well development, Well and pump maintenance and rehabilitation.

 

EASC 407:     Integrated Water Resources Management

The course develops knowledge in climate dynamics, hydrology and surface water resources which actually link hydro-meteorological and hydrological processes together with the relationship between rainfall and hydrological measurements, the important of groundwater resources in water resources management. Integrated water resources management designed to provide basic understanding of the principles, paradigms and methodologies in IWRM shall be treated along with water management and the environment and water quality management and the impacts of human activities on the ecosystem. Case studies involving the major river catchments shall be carried out.

 

EASC 417:         Mineralogy

The course is divided into two parts. Part 1 comprises crystal chemistry, crystal growth, relationship between crystal structure and temperature, pressure, and composition (phase equilibria), x-ray crystallography and chemical analysis of minerals. Part 2 concerns detailed study of selected phase systems, systematic and determinative mineralogy and analysis of some selected minerals.

 

EASC 419:         Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

Advanced concepts in the origin and evolution of magmatic and metamorphic systems. Magma genesis and dynamics. Concept illustrated by rocks from Ghana and elsewhere.

 

EASC 420:         Project

Students do individual research work in their respective fields under the supervision of School members and present a report at the end of the academic year.

 

EASC 426:         Rural Water Supply

The course is designed to incorporate various areas in water resources management including water as a resource, water resources of Ghana, Ghana’s water policy, water supply options in Ghana; management, planning and implementation of rural water schemes. Basic principles and concepts in rural water supply, community interactions, developing a project strategy; Community Water supply policy of Ghana will also be taught. Topics such as finding, design, constructing and assessing groundwater, water quality aspects of rural water supply; rural water infrastructure, capacity building, community water supply options and innovations will also be taught. Case histories will be an integral part of the programme.

 

EASC 437:         Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry

This course discusses the Earth from geochemical perspective using the fundamental geochemical tools studied in EAES 206. It covers the following: Chosmochemistry: nucleosynthesis, meteorites, formation of the solar system and the planets; The Mantle and Core: composition of the earth’s mantle and core, the “primitive mantle”, magma ocean and mantle differentiation, mantle geochemical reservoirs; The crust: oceanic crust; crust-mantle interaction, continental crust, growth of the continental crust; Reactions at the earth’s surface: weathering, soils, and stream chemistry; The oceans as a chemical system.

 

EASC 438:     Water Quality and Hydrochemistry

Water quality standards. Hydrochemical behaviour of contaminants. Measurement of parameters. Hydrochemical sequences. Graphical methods and hydrochemical facies. Sources of contaminants. Contaminant transport. Hydrochemical behaviour of contaminants. Case study: Groundwater chemistry in crystalline terrain.

 

EASC 439: Exploration Methods, Planning and Management

The course covers: exploration programme design, reconnaissance exploration, detailed or follow-up exploration, sampling and assaying techniques, drilling techniques, project evaluation.

 

EASC 446:         Sedimentary Petrology

The purpose of this course is to give students a broad understanding of how sedimentary rocks form and how they evolve as they undergo burial. The course covers the following: origin, mineralogy and diagenesis of clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks; quantitative analysis of sedimentary rocks; chemical and biochemical sedimentary rocks; interpretation of siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks.

 

EASC 447:         Mineral Projects Feasibility Studies

The role of the feasibility study in the mine development decision process, organisation of the preliminary feasibility study, presentation of project material, mining methods, geological data, mineral processing, surface facilities/ infrastructure/environmental requirements, capital and operating cost, revenue estimation, mineral taxation and financial evaluation, sensitivity and risk analysis.

 

EASC 448:     Geology of Africa

The course covers the following topics: Precambrian of Africa, Proterozoic cratonic basins and mobile belts, Palaeozoic Sedimentary Basins in Africa, Mesozoic – Cenozoic basins in Africa, the Atlas Belt.

 

EASC 449:     Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation

Review of statistical measures, outliers, and the desirable properties of an estimator. Basic concepts: regionalised variables, stationarity and intrinsic hypothesis. Variograms and structural analysis: calculation and interpretation experimental variograms and fitting theoretical models. Use of volume variance relationships. Estimation variance: sampling programs, optimal drill hole positions. Theory and practice of kriging: estimation at grid node and over block, total, and average grade. Recoverable reserves.

 

EASC 450:     Geological Field Mapping

Integrated approach to examining geologic relationships in the field; deciphering geologic evolution of map regions through the collection and interpretation of geologic data. Students spend 3-4 weeks in the field to collect geological data for laboratory analysis, preparation of geological maps, cross sections and report writing.

 

EASC 454:     Geochronology         

The primary objective of this course is to provide a practical overview of principles and techniques used in geochronology. The theory, methodology and interpretation of the following dating techniques will be discussed: U-Th-Pb, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb, K-Ar, Ar-Ar, and Fission track dating. Cosmogenic and fossil isotopes. The dating of Ghanaian rocks will also be discussed.

 

EASC 457:     Rock Mechanics

Index properties of rocks; engineering characteristics of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks. Shear strength of planar discontinuities; Shearing on an inclined plane; Surface roughness; Shear testing on discontinuities in rock; Estimating joint compressive strength and friction angle; Shear strength of filled discontinuities and closely jointed rock masses; Testing closely jointed rock masses; Residual Strength; Schmidt Hammer Test. Rock Mass Classification and their importance in engineering works; Rock Quality Designation (RQD); Influence of clay seams and fault gouge; CSIR classification of jointed rock masses; NGI Tunneling Quality Index. Types of earth-moving Equipment; Borrow materials; Cuts in rocks and soils; cuts; Shallow Foundations; Foundations of alternate hard and soft strata; Free-draining materials; Roads and Highways; Earth dams; Canal works. Laboratory work.

 

EASC 458:         Exploration Geophysics

Theory: Instrumentation, Survey procedures, data processing and interpretation. Methods: Seismic, Electrical (Resistivity, S.P. & I.P.), Electro-Magnetics, Gravity, Magnetics.

 

EASC 459:         Bearing Capacity and Slope Stability Analysis

Theory of bearing capacity cohesive and cohesionless soils and clays; Bearing capacity estimation from in situ tests; Estimation of bearing pressures by empirical methods, Foundation Types; Protection of foundations against attack by soils and groundwater. Slope failure types in soils, General methods of analysis in cohesive and cohesionless soils, End-of-construction and long-term stability. Plane failures; Wedge failure; Circular failure; Toppling failure; Application of Hemispherical Projections to Determine Failure Modes; Influence of a slope curvature upon stability; Surface protection of slopes; Control of rock falls; Monitoring and interpretation of slope displacements. Field Visits (3 days).

 

EASC 460:         Field Exercises in Earth Science

The course includes several one-day long and one one-week field trips to landfill and mine sites. It introduces practical skills appropriate to the study of earth and environmental science. The course concentrates on interactions and feedbacks in the environment, including geology, landforms, soil types and water quality. These field studies are supported by laboratory sessions in which students analyze their observations and the data they have gathered from the field.

 

EASC 461:     Basin Analysis

Introduction - scope, purpose and developments. Sedimentary basins. Regional and global stratigraphic cycles. Depositional systems and facies analysis. Data acquisition - measuring and recording surface and subsurface data. Data manipulation. Burial history. Selected case histories of sedimentary basins. Recognition of ancient sedimentary environments using a combination of wireline log responses, sedimentary structures and mineralogy. The construction of subsurface contour and facies maps, and isopach maps using borehole data.

 

EASC 462:         Exploration Geochemistry

The course covers the following: Geochemistry of the supergene environment; Supergene mineralization; Regolith geochemistry; Geochemical exploration: basic principles, drainage, soil and vegetation surveys Statistical treatment of geochemical data; Analytical methods.

 

EASC 463:     Basin Tectonics

Basins in their plate-tectonic setting. Lithosphere behaviour and the mechanisms of basin formation. Key features of extensional, compressional and strike-slip basins. Testing tectonic models by stratigraphic analysis. Facies architecture of basins including: (i) tectonics and sedimentation (ii) sequence stratigraphy. The interaction between sea-level change, tectonics, climate and sediment supply in the final development of a basin-fill.

 

EASC 464:     Mining, Oil and Gas, and the Environment

Acid Mine Drainage; mineral resources in relation to renewable resources; environmental and health impacts of mineral extraction and processing; land degradation in relation to mining especially surface mining operations. Visits to mine sites to observe environmental issues associated with mining.

 

EASC 465:         Micropalaeontology/Palynology

Foraminifera; Ostracods; Conodonts; Diatoms; Palynology: Definition of palynology. Some application of palynology. Pollen & Spore; Dinoflagellates; Acritarchs; Practicals: Method of preparation of microfossil.

 

EASC 466:     Petroleum Reservoir Geophysics

The applications of geophysics in 2D and 3D mapping of geological structures. Reflection seismic acquisition. Seismic processing fundamentals and digital filtering. Interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, including horizontal and vertical slices, presentation parameters, horizon autotracking, fault mapping, stratigraphic and structural interpretation, and reservoir evaluation. Reservoir aspects of seismic interpretation. Seismic stratigraphy.

 

EASC 467:     Geology of Civil Engineering Projects

Urban geology, engineering geology of dams and tunnels, building cracking evaluation, ground treatment: stabilization, dewatering, grouting and rock bolting. Role of engineering geologist during construction of roads, houses, dams, tunnels, etc. In depth study using case studies of major civil engineering projects such as tunnels, motorways, dams, etc. Visit to a Mine (2 days).

 

EASC 468:     Reservoir Engineering

Basic petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks including porosity, permeability, fluid saturation, electrical conductivity, capillary pressure, and relative permeability; classification of oil and natural gas reservoirs; introduction to reserve estimation principles. Laboratory measurement of the reservoir rock characteristics mentioned above. Derivation of the general material balance equation. Application of the general material balance equation for determining initial oil in place and gas cap size and water influx constant under different drive mechanisms. Application of the general material balance equation for determining the initial gas in place for conventional gas reservoir.

 

 

EASC 470:         Communication and Entrepreneurship in the Earth Sciences

The course is divided into two parts. The purpose of Part I is to help students to communicate ideas better and to learn the skills of communicating geology. Topics include discussion and review of different kinds of geological publications such as theses, articles,  books, abstracts, etc. Writing exercises (dealing with content as well as language) will include the students’ own CV's, abstracts, extended abstracts, and papers. Also included are oral presentation delivery, proposal development, content organization and audience perspective. The course consists of lectures, student presentations and constructive critiques that take place intensively over the 13-week course period. Part II teaches students the basic and foundational skills needed to start their own business in the geosciences. Using the fundamentals of economics, marketing, accounting and business organizations, students will develop a comprehensive business plan that includes sales, financial, and legal considerations for starting and operating a small business.

 

EASC 471:     Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

This course is of two parts. Part I introduces the principles and concepts of Remote Sensing (RS): a sophisticated technology of earth observation, which provides fundamental data for global environment investigation. In this part, students are introduced to environmental issues of Earth, principles of RS, satellites and sensors, RS imagery, data acquisition systems, digital image processing for RS imagery, and applications. Part II introduces the principles, concepts and applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS): a decision support tool for planners and managers of spatial information. Database development, manipulation and spatial analysis techniques for information generation will be taught. Application of GIS in natural resource management, environment, civil engineering, etc, will be discussed through mini project and laboratory exercises.

 

EASC 472:     Site Investigations

Site mapping; Test pit excavations and Logs; Borehole layout; Drilling methods and equipment: Wash borings; Rotary and percussion drilling in Soils; Auger Borings; Disturbed and Undisturbed sampling; In-situ tests: Shear vane tests; Standard Penetration Tests (SPT); Dynamic Cone Penetration Tests (DCPT); Static Cone Penetration Tests (STPT); Plate Loading Tests; Exploratory drifts and tunnels; Logs of Core Borings; Water sampling: Installation of piezometers. Application of geophysical surveys in site investigations. Interpretation of geophysical survey results and implications on engineering geological problems. Site investigation reports. Case studies; Field work (8 days)

 

EASC 474:     Rock as a Construction Material

Explorations for quarries and aggregates for concrete, roads and highways, runways and railways; Explosives and blasting; Physical properties and Chemical reaction on aggregates in Concrete mixes; Sulphides and Organic Substances in Concrete; Pozzolanic Materials; Sampling; Laboratory Work; Field Visits (4 days).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF EARTH SCIENCE

Faculty

Sandow M. Yidana                                                  -    Associate Professor/ Head of Department

BSc( (Ghana), PhD (Montclair)

B.K. Banoeng-Yakubo**                                               -                 Professor

BSc. (Ghana), MSc (Ife), MPhil, PhD (Ghana)

D.K. Asiedu                                                                     -                 Professor

BSc (Ghana), MSc, PhD (Okayama)

D. Atta-Peters                                                                  -                             Associate Professor

BSc, MPhil, PhD (Ghana)

T.M. Akabzaa**                                                              -                Associate Professor

P.M. Nude                                                                        -                 Associate Professor

BSc, MPhil, PhD (Ghana)

BSc, PhD (Ghana), MEng (McGill)

F.K. Nyame                                                                    -                  Associate Professor

BSc (Ghana), MSc, PhD (Okayama)

J. Manu*                                                                          -                 Associate Professor

BSc, MBA (Ghana), MSc, PhD (Braunscheig)

T.E.K. Armah                                                                 -                 Senior Lecturer

BSc, MPhil, PhD (Ghana)

J.M. Kutu*                                                                      -                 Senior Lecturer

BSc, MPhil, PhD (Ghana)

P.A. Sakyi                                                                                                 -                Senior Lecturer

BSc, MPhil (Ghana), MSc (DTU), PhD (Okayama)    

L.P. Chegbeleh                                                                             -                Senior Lecturer

BSc (Ghana), PhD (Okayama)          

Dr. Chris Yao Anani                                                       -                            Senior Lecturer

BSc (Ghana), MSc (Shinshu), PhD (Niigata)   

Yvonne A.S. Loh                                                             -                 Lecturer

BSc, MPhil PhD(Ghana)

F. Achampong*                                                                            -                Lecturer

BSc (Ghana), MASc (Windsor), PhD (Detroit)

I. A. Oppong                                                                                 -                Lecturer

BSc (Ghana), PGD (TU Delft), MSc (Greenwich)PhD (K’si)

M.S. Sapah                                                                -                       Lecturer

BSc (Ghana), PhD (ANU)     

D. Kwayisi                                                                 -                       Assistant Lecturer

BSc, MPhil (Ghana)

N.A. Agra                                                                  -                       Assistant Lecturer

BSc, MPhil (Ghana)

J. Agbetsoamedo                                                       -                       Assistant Lecturer      

BSc, MPhil (Ghana)

A  Ayikwei                                                                 -                       Assistant Lecturer

BSc, MPhil (Ghana)

B. Fiebor                                                                           -                            Visiting Scholar

BSc (Ghana), MS, PhD (Auburn)

M.A. Akoto                                                                      -                             Part-time Lecturer

BSc (K’si), MPhil (Lond)

Paulina E. Amposah                                                                   -                Part-time Lecturer

BSc, (Kumasi) MPhil, PhD (Ghana).            

D.  Boamah                                                                      -                 Part-time Lecturer

BSc (Ghana), MSc (ITC) PhD (Vienna).                                                                   

G. K. Tetteh                                                                     -                 Part-time Lecturer

BSc, (Ghana), Mphil, PhD (Ghana).             

E.  Apesega                                                                      -                 Part-time Lecturer

BSc (Ghana), MSc (Imperial College).                      

M. N. A. Aryeetey                                                           -                 Part-time Lecturer

BSc (Ghana), MSc (NTNU, Norway).           

R. K. Afenu                                                                    -                 Part-time Lecturer

BSc, MBA, BL (Ghana), MEng (McGill).

A.N.A. Ammah                                                                             -               Part-time Lecturer

BSc, MPhil (Ghana),   MSc (NTNU, Norway),          

K. N. Eghan-Ekuban                                                                 -                  Part-time Lecturer

BSc MPhil (Ghana

* Post Retirement Contract

**Leave of Absence